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In 1752 a new lodge was established at Fredericksburg and it would be this lodge that would initiate George Washington.
In 1666, the Great Fire of London began. This fire destroyed St. Paul's Church, which was rebuilt by sir Christopher Wren, whom many contend was a Freemason.
Clement XIII publishes "Ut Primum" directed against the "ENCYCLOPEDIE" of Diderot and d'Alembert.
In 1189, following the death of his father Henry II, Richard Plantagenet (the Lionheart) was crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey in London on September 3. . While King of England he spent the vast majority of his ten-year reign abroad, devoting himself to the Crusades. Richard's constant companions were knights from the Order of Knights Templar who participated in his Crusade to recover Jerusalem lost to the Saracens a year earlier. The Knights Templar were formally under the control of the Order of Sion created a half century earlier by Godfroi de Bouillon. In 1187 a formal separation came between the Order of Sion and the Knights Templar. The formal separation was marked by a ceremony at Gisors, France,. referred to as the "cutting of the elm."> From 1188 onward the Knights Templar operated autonomously until their "grim doom" in 1307 at the hands of Philip IV and Pope Clement. Rumor has it that Richard remained protective to the Templars and consequently is by some regarded, along with the Templars, as a forerunner to modern Freemasonry.
In1860 St. John's Lodge No. 9 in the State of Washington was Chartered.
In 1836 Brother Sam Houston elected president of the republic of Texas. He received his degrees in Cumberland Lodge No 8 , Nashville, TN in 1817. He affiliated with Holland Lodge No. 36 of Louisiana in 1837 which became Holland Lodge No. 1 of Texas. It is believed he was also a Royal Arch Mason. He died in 1873.
In 1874 was born Bro. Harry (Erich Weiss, Houdini, world famous American conjurer and escape artist. His stage performances were legendary, and his books on conjuring were widely acclaimed. He was made a Mason in 1923, in St. Cecile Lodge No. 568, New York City. Master magician, debunker of charlatans Born in Budapest, Hungary, Erich Weiss idolized the French magician Jean Houdin. Altering Houdin's name slightly, Weiss adopted the name Harry Houdini. Bro. Houdini's childhood was spent in relative poverty, and he began to perform professionally at the age of nine on the trapeze. Later he worked as an apprentice locksmith, and was given the task of opening a handcuff, which set him on the path to becoming the world's most famous escape artist. Perfecting methods of escape from handcuffs, chains, straightjackets, and packing cases, Bro. Houdini entertained millions. He also dedicated himself to debunking false "spiritualists" by exposing their deceptive methods. In an attempt to prove once and for all whether or not there is life beyond the grave, he gave his wife a 10-word code before he died. While a number of mediums purported to have been in contact with Houdini after his death, none were able to provide his wife with the prearranged secret message.
In 1757, Bro. Lafayette, general and aristocrat, came to assist America in the revolutionary cause and volunteered to serve without pay. Marquis de Lafayette's full name was Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch-Gilbert du Motier. Commander in Chief Bro. George Washington was to became close friends with Bro. Lafayette on whom he bestowed the rank of Major General. After an alliance was signed with France he returned to France and persuaded Louis XVI to send a 6, 000-man army to America to assist Bro. Washington. On his return he was given command of an army at Virginia which was instrumental in forcing the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown, leading to the end of the war and American independence. He was hailed as a "hero of two worlds" and when he returned to France in 1782 was made a Brigadier General. He became a leader of the liberal aristocrats during the early days of the French revolution , presenting to the National Assembly his draft of "a Declaration of the Rights of man and of the Citizen." As commander of the National Guard of Paris, he rescued Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette from a crowd that stormed Versailles October 6, 1789, returning them to Paris where they became hostages of the revolution. Born at Chavaniac, he died at Paris May 20, 1834.
In 1901, Bro. William McKinley, then President of the United States. was shot at Buffalo, NY. He died eight days later. His assassin, Leon Czolgosz was executed on October 29, 1901. The 25th President of the U.S. was initiated in Hiram Lodge 21 at Winchester, VA on May 1, passed on May 2, and raised on May 5, 1865. He was affiliated with Canton Lodge 60 at Canton, OH, and was a member of Mark and Royal Arch, and a Knight Templar.
In 1909, American explorer Bro. Robert Peary sent word that he had reached the North Pole on April 6, five months earlier. The final, successful expedition was the fifth of a series he had undertaken Bro. Peary was a member of the New York City explorer's lodge, Kane No. 454. This Lodge was given the Masonic flag which Bro. Peary had displayed at Independence Bay, Greenland, on May 20 and 25, 1895. This Lodge, on March 30, 1920, presented his widow with a special medal in honor of her distinguished husband. Bro. Peary's gift to New York Grand Lodge were two specimens of the great meteorite weighing 90 tons which he had discovered in North Greenland. Bro. Peary died February 20, 1920.
In 1859, the first masonic funeral in British Columbia was held in Victoria for Brother Samuel Hazeltine a Government Steamboat Inspector, who died from injuries received in a marine accident at Victoria.
In 1565, the Siege that began in May, 1565 was broken by the Maltese aided by the Knights Templar now named Knights of St. John after a loss of nearly 10,000 lives.
In 1925, born at Southsea, Hampshire, England, was Bro. Peter Sellers, an award-winning British comedian and film star, best remembered for his role as the bumbling character, Inspector Clouseau in the "Pink Panther" films, "Dr. Strangelove," and in the BBC radio "Goon Show." He was initiated in Chelsea Lodge 3098 in London. . He died at London, England, July 24, 1980.
Leo Tolstoy was born on this day. His most famous novel, War and Peace would
contain passages on Freemasonry. An example follows:
In 1890 was born Bro. Harlan Davis Sanders, founder of Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurants, near Henryville, IN. Bro. Sanders died December 16, 1980.
In 1926, Bro. David Sarnoff incorporated the National Broadcasting Company as a subsidiary of the Radio Corporation of America, and the first radio chain in the United States. Bro. Sarnoff, a Russian immigrant, started work at RCA as an office boy, By the time he became President of NBC he was responsible for the $83-million in radio set sales by RCA from 1921 to 1924. What finally convinced RCA directors of radio's future was his blow-by-blow coverage of the fight between Bro. Jack Dempsey and Carpentier in 1921. Bro. Sarnoff became a Mason in the Lodge of Strict Observance No. 94 in New York City on June 14, 1921. In June 1955, he received the coveted award for distinguished achievement from the New York Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons.
In 1943, US General and Bro. Mark Clark's Fifth Army made an amphibious assault on Salerno, Italy (Operation Avalanche) at 3:30 AM. The British 1st Airborne Division seized the southern Italian pot of Taranto (Operation Slapstick) without opposition. Strong German forces counterattacked pushing the Allied forces back to within two miles of the coast On 15 September US 82nd Airborne and British 78th Armored counter-attacked and on 16 September, units of the American 5th Army and the British 8th Army joined up near Vale di Lucerne. Bro. Clark was raised in Mystic Tie Lodge 398, Indianapolis, IN.
In 1823 Simon Bolivar was named President of Peru. Brother Bolivar is remembered as one of South America's greatest generals.
In 1777, the largest engagement of the American Revolutionary War took place between the Continental Army led by Bro. George Washington and British troops led by General William Howe. Howe was marching to take Philadelphia when Bro. Washington chose to try and stop Howe's advance at the Brandywine River near Chadds Ford, PA. The American forces were defeated and the British went on to take Philadelphia on September 26. The British spent the winter in Philadelphia while Bro. Washington's troops suffered the winter through at their encampment at Valley Forge, PA.
In 2000 a ceremonial proclamation was issued by the Grand Masters of the Grand Lodge of D.C. and the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of D.C. acknowledging the mutual recognition established by the two bodies in 1999.
In 1826 it was that William Morgan was abducted by Freemasons who took him to Fort Niagara. According to some claims, Morgan was murdered. Other accounts state that Morgan was given $500 to start a new life elsewhere. Whatever the truth, Morgan was never seen again, although his abduction would be a catylist in the formation of the anti-masonic party.
On the night of September 13 Bro. Francis Scott Key was aboard a ship that was delayed in Baltimore Harbor by the British attack on Fort Henry. Bro. key had no choice but to anxiously watch the battle. That experience and seeing the American flag still flying over the Fort the next morning inspired him to pen the verses that coupled with the tune of a popular drinking song became our official National Anthem in 1931 - 117 years after the words were written.
In 1814 was born General (Bro.) John J. (Black Jack) Pershing at Laclede, MO. Bro. Pershing as General commanded the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) during World War . the AEF, as part of the inter-Allied offensive, successfully assaulted the St. Mihiel salient in September, 1918, and later that month quickly regrouped for the Meuse -Argonne operation that led to the Armistice of November 11, 1918. Bro. Pershing died July 15, 1948 at Washington, DC.
In 1882 the monument to the memory of William Morgan was erected at Batavia, New York. The monument still stands to this day.
In 1321 Dante Alighieri dies. The Italian poet and author of the Divine Comedy died at Ravenna, Italy. He was born in May, 1265 (exact date unknown) at Florence, Italy. This enigmatic, mystical personage was one of the notable Rosicrucian Grand Masters and a Knight of the Rose Cross, later to become a degree in the Scottish Rite. One of Dante's most avid students was Christopher Columbus, a Knight of Christ, who, in addition to his patronage by the Spanish Court, was sponsored by Leonardo DaVinci, a member of Rene D'Anjou's Order of the Crescent ( a revival of an earlier crusading order established by Louis IX.
In 1851 the Grand Lodge of Oregon was formed.
In 1901, Bro. William McKinley, then President of the United States. was shot at Buffalo, NY. He died eight days later. . His assassin Leon Czolgosz was executed on October 29, 1901. The 25th President of the U.S. was initiated in Hiram Lodge 21 at Winchester, VI on May 1, passed on May 2, and raised on May 5, 1865. He was affiliated with Canton Lodge 60 at Canton, OH, and was a member of Mark and Royal Arch, and a Knight Templar.
Feast of Tishiri – 15th day of the 7th month – though the date moves with the Jewish Calendar (7th Month of the Jewish calendar somewhere between September and October).
In 1851 the Grand Lodge of Oregon was formed.
In 1857 at Cincinnati, OH. was born Bro. William Howard Taft, 27th US President. His term of office was March 4, 1909-March 3, 1913. Following his Presidency he became a law professor at Yale University until his appointment as Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court in 1921. He was made a Mason "at sight" on June 18, 1909, by Grand Master Charles S. Hoskinson, then became affiliated with Kilwinning Lodge No. 356 at Cincinnati, OH. He later was made Honorary Member of Crescent Lodge No 28 at Cedar Rapids, IO. He died at Washington, DC March 8, 1930 and is buried at Arlington Cemetery.
In 1974, Gerald Ford, the most recent President who was a Freemason, granted amnesty for Vietnam War deserters.
In 1787, 39 delegates (many of them Masons) representing 12 of the 13 states, signed the stirring revolutionary document called the US Constitution. Bro. George Washington, who had presided over the convention, afterwards invited the delegates to a farewell supper at the City (Fraunces) Tavern before taking cordial leave of one another . And so was born the document designed "to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense promote the general Welfare, and secure the blessings of Liberty for ourselves and for our Posterity." Delegations from 12 states (Rhode Island did not send a delegation) at the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia, PA , voted unanimously to approve the proposed document. Thirty-nine of the 42 delegates present signed it and the convention adjourned after drafting a letter of transmittal to Congress. The proposed constitution stipulated that it would take effect when ratified by nine states. The period between September 17-23 is celebrated as Constitution Week by Presidential Proclamation issued every year since August 2, 1956. Thirty nine men signed the Constitution of which 13 (or 33 percent) were Freemasons. The Masons who signed were: - Bro. Gunning Bedford, Jr., First Grand Master of Delaware; - Bro. John Blair, First Grand Master of Virginia; - Bro. David Brearley, First Grand Master of New Jersey; - Bro. Jacob Broom, an Officer in his Delaware Lodge; - Bro. Daniel Carroll, of Maryland, a Mason who took part in the Masonic cornerstone laying of the US Capitol with Bro. George Washington; - Bro. Jonathan Dayton, a Member of Temple Lodge 1 in Elizabethtown, NJ; - Bro. John Dickinson, a member of a Lodge in Dover, Delaware; - Bro. Benjamin Franklin, Grand Master of Pennsylvania; - Bro. Nicholas Gilman, Member St. John's Lodge 1, Portsmouth, NH; - Bro. Rufus King, Member, St. John's Lodge, Newburyport, MA; - Bro. James McHenry, Member, Spiritual Lodge 23, Maryland; - Bro. William Patterson, Member, Trenton Lodge, New Jersey; - Bro. George Washington, Member, Lodge at Fredericksburg, VA.
In 1844 the Grand Lodge of Michigan was formed.
In 1911, the cornerstone was laid for the Detroit Masonic Temple. The Detroit Temple is the largest Masonic Temple in the world.
In 1793 Brother George Washington laid the cornerstone to the U.S. Capital in Masonic style. The silver trowel he used is today housed in a replica lodge room in the George Washington Masonic Memorial at Alexandria, Virginia.
In 1778 in Edinburgh, Scotland, was born Bro. Henry Peter Brougham, from 1830 Lord High Chancellor of England. In 1802 he co-founded the "Edinburgh Review," practiced at the English bar in 1808 and served as a member of parliament in 1810. He carried the measure making slave trade a felony and in 1828 was a founder of London University,. The Brougham carriage was named for him. Bro. Brougham was initiated, passed and raised in Fortrose Lodge., Stonoway, Scotland, in 1799, and on June 24, 1800, affiliated with Cononate Kilwinning Lodge in Edinburgh. He died May 7, 1868, at Cannes, France.
In 1881, President James Garfield was assassinated. Brother Garfield was initiated into Freemasonry 20 years previously in Magnolia Lodge No. 20, Columbus, Ohio. He was the 7th Mason to serve as President of the United States.
In 1784 The United Grand Lodge of England issued a warrant to African Lodge No. 459. This was the start of Prince Hall Masonry. African Lodge No. 459 is still in existence today.
In 1870. Italian troops under the leadership of Bro. Guiseppe Garibaldi took control of the Papal States, leading to the unification of Italy. He is lauded as an Italian patriot and hero of the Risorgimento, the movement for the liberation and union of Italy. In 1833 he joined Mazzini's revolutionary society, "Young Italy," and, after early reverses, took up the struggle for Italian freedom in 1848 , bringing it to completion in 1870 when Italian troops freed Rome from Papal control He was initiated in Lodge L'Ami de la Avertu, at Montevideo, in 1844. At one time he was a member of the French Grand Orient and became Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Palerma, 33." Freemasons were at the forefront of political change throughout Europe. Bro. Garibaldi himself made an explicit link between the Craft and his political vision. "Whenever there is a human cause, we are certain to find Freemasonry, for it is the fundamental basis of all true liberal associations. Forever I will pride myself on my Masonic connection." Bro. Garibaldi's 1860 autobiography was edited by Alexander Dumas who subsequently was made a Mason at Naples in 1862. Bro. George Routledge, who published the English translation of Bro. Garibaldi's book, was also a member of the Craft.
In 1880, three Colleges, chartered within the previous ten months by the Society in Scotland, united to form The Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis (Rosicrucian Society of the United States), a Masonic body.
In 1776, Nathan Hale, the American patriot, was hanged by the British as a spy during the Revolution. He was not a Freemason, though was mistaken for one by many Masonic writers to be a Colonel of the same name, Col. Nathan Hale, who had been a member of St. John's Lodge in Portsmouth, He too was captured by the British at Hubbardton during the American Revolution but died a war prisoner in 1780. New Hampshire.. This should have been evident for the Nathan Hale who was executed as a spy had been born in 1756 and executed in 1776. That would have made him 20 years old at the time of his execution. While not an impossible age for a Freemason it would have been rare one.
In 1901, Bro. Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt became the nation's 26th President and, at age 42, its youngest. Bro. Roosevelt took the oath of office soon after 58-year-old US President, Bro. William McKinley died from the gunshot wounds received six days earlier from the gun of assassin Leon Czolgosz. Bro. Roosevelt had been initiated on January 2, 1801, passed March 27, and raised April 24 of the same year at Matinecock Lodge No. 806 at Oyster Bay, NY. He was made an Honorary Member of Pentalpha lodge No. 23 at Washington, DC , where he took part in numerous Masonic ceremonies.
In 1989, Bro. Irving Berlin, Songwriter, died at Age 101. Bro. Berlin's best-selling songs ranged from "Alexander's Rag-Time Band" in 1911, to "White Christmas" in 1942. He was equally well-known for his theater and film music which included "Top Hat," "Follow The Fleet," and "Annie Get Your Gun." The entire royalties for several of his songs he gave to a charity for deprived youth. He was made a Mason in Munn Lodge 190 in New York City, and was active both in the Scottish rite and as a Shrine Mason. He died in New York City.
In 1786 the Grand Lodge of Nebraska was formed.
In 1755 at Germantown, VA. was born Bro. John Marshall who was to become 4th Chief Justice of Supreme Court He served in House of Representatives and as secretary of state under John Adams. Bro Marshall was appointed by President Adams to the position of Chief Justice where he quickly became known as "The Great Chief Justice." Bro. Marshall's court was largely responsible for defining the role of the Supreme Court and basic organizing principles of government in the early years after adoption of the Constitution. He died in Philadelphia, PA on July 6, 1835. He was a member of Richmond Lodge 13 (F&AM), Richmond, VA.
In 1940 Brother Harry S. Truman was elected the 97th Grand Master of Missouri Masons. He held the position until October 1st, 1941.
In 1865, Pope Pius IX issues the Bull, "Multiplices Intern," which was in opposition to Freemasonry.
In 1796, the Bostonian newspaper "Independent Chronicle" published Bro. George Washington's Farewell Address, the leader's best known speech. The speech, never delivered orally by Bro. Washington, explained the reasons why he did not want to seek a third term as president of the United States. Bro. Washington had arranged to have the speech - his last political will and testament - published in other principle newspapers throughout the country. In it he warned against the rise of "a small but artful, enterprising minority" of politicians whose ambitions and ploys can be fatal to the union. The antidote, he said, is a union of the people, a spiritual union that will transcend party, state or section.
In 1872 the AAONMS was organized in New York City. That organization is best known by the name of Shriners.
In 1915, Brother Rudyard Kipling's only son, John, was killed at the Battle of Loos in Belgium, He was 18. It is a tragedy, Bro. Rudyard never recovered from.
In 1758 at Burnham England, was born Bro. Horatio Nelson, English Naval hero of the Battle of Trafalgar. Bro. Nelson's Naval prowess had earned him many victories and, in 1801, a Viscountship. In 1805 he won the Battle of Trafalgar with the French fleet but was hit by a sharpshooter's musket ball which fragmented his spine. He died as victory was completed with the annihilation of the enemy fleet. Some question remains as to whether Bro. Nelson was a mason but at his funeral a banner carried by York lodge No. 256 carried these words: " We rejoice with our Country but mourn our Brother."
In 1916 a single reel silent film entitled, "Bobby Bumps Starts a lodge" is released. The film contains references to an apron, a goat and the Third Degree.
In 1907 Freemasons lay the cornerstone for the Washington National Cathedral in Washington D.C.
In 1452 Johann Gutenberg publishes his famed Bible.
In 1791 Bro. Mozart's opera, "The Magic Flute" premiers in Vienna
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