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In 1759 Bro. George Washington married the widow Martha Custis. She ad first married Daniel Parke Custis in 1749 and bore him four children, two of which died in childhood. Custis died in July, 1757, leaving Martha one of the wealthiest women in Virginia. Bro. Washington first met her in March, 1758 and lost no time in proposing marriage, and was just as quickly accepted. Bro. Washington took his new wife and her family to his Mount Vernon estate. They had no children of their own. Martha died in 1802.

In 1880, was born in Driftwood, PA, Bro. Thomas Edwin Mix, American motion picture actor, best known for his 400 western cowboy films. He was a real life US Marshal before becoming a film actor. Bro. Mix was initiated in Utopia Lodge 537,. Los Angeles, CA, in 1925. He died near Florence, AZ, October 10, 1940.

In 1912., Bro. Danny Thomas, was born Muzyad Yakhoob, later Amos Jacobs, at Deerfield, MI. Bro.; Thomas began is acting career as a radio actor and nightclub comedian, then went on to the movies in the 1940s and 1950s. His greatest fame came from his television show, "Make Room for Daddy" (1953-64), and later as a television producer. He was also a tireless philanthropist. Founder of St. Jude's Children's Research Hospital at Memphis, TN., Bro. Thomas often told the story of how physicians at his hospital explained to him the need for a very unique therapy for a patient at St. Jude's which was only available at a Shrine Masons' Hospital. Bro. Thomas told the doctors to proceed with the treatment, regardless of the cost. When he was advised by the Shriners that there would be no cost, Bro. Thomas was shocked and vowed to find out more about this organization. Shortly thereafter, he petitioned for and became a Mason. Prior to his death, he was featured in videos and wrote articles praising the good works of Freemasonry. Bro. Thomas died February 6, 1991, at Los Angeles, CA.

In 1919. Bro. Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States, died at his home at Oyster Bay, NY. Bro. Roosevelt was initiated January 2, 1801, passed March 27 and raised April 24 of the same year in Matinecock Lodge 806, Oyster Bay, NY. He was made an honorary member of Pentalpha Lodge 23 at Washington, DC and took active part in many Masonic ceremonies. Newsday ALMANAC; Freemasonry: A Celebration of the Craft.

By this day in 1941, most of Europe had been conquered and occupied by the Germans. Among the larger democracies, only Britain had been able to resist the Nazi aggression and was continuing to fight. While many Americans, including President and Bro. Franklin Roosevelt, wanted the United States to help, there was strong sentiment against entering the war in Europe. Bro. Roosevelt used his annual State of the Union address to urge Congress to approve an ambitious "Lend-Lease" program whereby the U.S. would become the "arsenal of democracy" and provide weapons to help Britain and any other Allies to defend their freedom against the Axis powers. In the speech, Bro. Roosevelt also defined four essential freedoms worth defending: freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. Congress responded two months later with Lend-Lease legislation, which released vast quantities of war materials to Britain, and later to China and the USSR, and got the U.S. industrial economy on a war footing before the country entered WWII.

In 1941, Bro. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32nd US President, citing what he called the "Four Freedoms," asked Congress to approve a multimillion-dollar pogrom of aid to the countries fighting the war against Nazi Germany. The President called the proposed lend-lease program vital in promoting the defense of the nation, His speech outlined four goals: (1) Freedom of speech and expression; (20 Freedom of people to worship God in their own way; (3) Freedom from want; and (4) Freedom from Fear,. All of the points referred to the Freedoms as fundamental "to all peoples anywhere in the world."


In 1745 was born at Vidalon-lez Annonay, Ardeche, France, Bro. Jacques Etienne Montgolfier who, with his brother, co-invented the hot air balloon and made human's first flight . With his older brother, Joseph Michel, also a Mason, he conducted experiments with paper and fabric bags filled with smoke and hot air which led to their invention of the balloon and their first flight, witnessed in Paris by Bro.. Benjamin Franklin. Bro. Montgolfier was initiated in Loge Les Neuf Soeurs at Paris, in 1784. Bro. Montgolfier died August 2, 1799, at Serrieres, France.


In 1815 British forces lost more than 2,000 men in an attack on New Orleans, LA. Defending US troops were led by General and Bro. Andrew Jackson, who became a popular hero as a result of the victory. Neither side, however, knew that the War of 1812 had ended two weeks earlier with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, December 24, 1814. Bro. Jackson went on to become the 7th President of the US and a very active Freemason. He was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee from October, 1822 to October 1824, was a member of Harmony Lodge No. 1 at Nashville, TN, an honorary member of Federal Lodge No. 1 at Washington, DC, and was also a Royal Arch Mason.

In 1964 Bro. Lyndon B. Johnson, 36th United States President, declared a War on Poverty in his State of the Union address. He stressed improved education as one of the cornerstones of the program. The following August 20 he signed a $947.5 million antipoverty Bill designed to assist more than 30 million citizens.

In Greece women stop their housework and spend their time in cafes while the men do all the housework chores and look after the children. In some villages men caught outside the house will be stripped and drenched with cold water. AMERICAN MASON magazine joins our Greek Brethren in celebrating Midwives Day (or Women's Day) honoring mid wives and all women.


In 1908 US President and Bro; Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed Muir Woods a National Monument. Most of the majestic redwood trees that once covered many of northern California's coastal valleys were cut down during the extensive logging of the 19th century. Only the least accessible trees were spared. Fortunately, a stand of old-growth redwood survived in Marin County, a short distance from San Francisco. Congressman William Kent purchased the land in 1905 and donated it to the Federal Government. Although Roosevelt had suggested naming it after Kent, the congressman requested that it honor the name of John Muir, the naturalist, writer, and crusader for national parks who founded the Sierra Club conservationist organization.

In 1945 General and Bro. Douglas Mac Arthur landed 67,000 troops in the Gulf of Lingayen on the western coast of the big island of Luzon. Here US forces began the final push to retake the Philippines by attacking at the same location where the Japanese had begun their invasion nearly four years earlier. The Japanese offered little opposition to the landing itself but fought fiercely against Allied advancement, particularly around Clarke Field, the major air base of the islands. Thus Bro. Douglas MacArthur was able to redeem his pledge "I shall return" when he successfully invaded Luzon this date 55 years ago. In about a month's time his tanks would be going through the gates of Santo Tomas University where allied civilians were interned by the Japanese who drove him out of the former Philippine colony in 1942.


In 1984 Bro. Dave Thomas, founder of Wendy's Food Chain, made of Clara Peller an instant cult figure in the first of the "Where's The Beef?" TV advertisements promoting Wendy's Hamburgers. The ornery old lady appeared in a total of four commercials, which created record levels of consumer awareness and won a Clio award.

In 2001 US President Bill Clinton unveiled a statue of the late President and Bro. Franklin Delano Roosevelt seated in his wheelchair. The unveiling which took place at the FDR Memorial in Washington, DC ended an emotional six-year campaign led by disability advocacy groups to show the 32nd President as he lived, not as he portrayed himself to the public. The life-size bronze statue shows FDR's upturned face beaming the faith and optimism, that inspired the nation during the Great Depression and World War II. It is at ground level. Its small scale, in stark contrast, to the larger than life-size Lincoln and Jefferson monuments nearby, is designed to show the humanity of the man and the personal difficulties he overcame. Robert Graham of California is the sculptor.


In 1815, Bro. Sir John A. MacDonald, the first prime minister of Canada, was born in Glasgow, Scotland. In 1867 he was responsible for uniting the Canadian provinces into the Dominion of Canada, of which he became the first Prime Minister until 1873. He held the office again from 1878 until his death in 1891. He was initiated in St. John's Lodge 758, at Kingston, Ontario, in 1844.


In 1737 Bro. John Hancock, American patriot, statesman, and first signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born at Braintree, MA. Because of his conspicuous signature on the Declaration, Bro. Hancock's name has become part of the American language, referring to any handwritten signature, as in "Put your John Hancock on that." One of nine Masons to sign the Declaration, he was President of the Continental Congress and served nine terms as Governor of Massachusetts. Bro. Hancock died at Quincy, MA October 8, 1793.

In 1886 Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076 Consecrated in London.


In 1794, President and Bro. George Washington approved a measure adding two stars and two stripes to the U.S. flag, following the admission of Vermont and Kentucky to the union (The number of stripes was later reduced to 13 again.)


In 1943, US President and Bro. Franklin Delano Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Bro. Winston Churchill opened a conference in Morocco.. The conference would end on January 24 with the announcement by both wartime leaders and Masons that the war would not end until the allies achieved the unconditional surrender of Germany, Italy and Japan Bro. Roosevelt would be heard to say that he was determined to destroy the "philosophies of those countries which are based on conquest and the subjugation of other people. .The conference would also lead to the opening of a southern front and the invasion of Sicily.




In 1991 the US began Operation Desert Shield (later to be called Desert Storm);. The military conflict known as the Persian Gulf War started when Iraq invaded and occupied Kuwait in August 1990. In November, the United Nations Security Council passed a resolution demanding that Iraq withdraw from Kuwait and setting January 15, 1991 as the deadline. Allied forces, chiefly from the U.S., Saudi Arabia, Britain, Egypt, Syria, and France, prepared to enforce the demand. Within 24 hours after the deadline expired, the allies launched Operation Desert Storm against the Iraqi military. Under the command of U.S. General and Bro. Norman Schwarzkopf, the offensive began on January 16 with massive bomb and missile attacks on Iraqi air defenses. Following a month of airborne attacks on Iraq's troops and infrastructure, the allied forces launched a ground assault. Within five days, Kuwait had been liberated and much of southern Iraq was under Allied occupation. On February 27, President Bush announced that Desert Storm had accomplished its goals and declared a cease-fire.


In 1706 in Boston, MA was born Bro. Benjamin Franklin, "Elder Statesman of the American Revolution" Bro. Franklin was the oldest signer of both the Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution. This amazing man and Mason was scientist, diplomat, author, printer, publisher, philosopher, philanthropist ,self-made,. and self-educated. His many inventions and public improvements included street lighting, a heating stove and the lightening rod. He gained French support for the colonies and negotiated a peace treaty with Britain in 1781, ending the Revolutionary War,. He was author, printer and publisher of Poor Richard's Almanac. His birthday is commemorated each year by the Poor Richard Club of Philadelphia with graveside observances. He died in Philadelphia April 17, 1790. Bro. Franklin was initiated in 1731 in St. John 's Lodge, Philadelphia, PA, and was always an enthusiastic Mason.

In 1876, the saxophone made what many consider to be its first public appearance in the US when it was played by Etta Morgan at New York City's Olympic Theatre. The instrument had been invented in the first half of the 19th century by Belgian musician Adolphe Sax.. Early on the saxophone became an integral part of the wind band, and later on of jazz music. Bro. Sax also invented the Saxhorn in 1845 which helped usher in a new range of musical expression. Bro. Sax was initiated in Belgium's Lodge Les Vrais Amis de l'Union in 1842.


In 1892, Bro. Oliver Hardy, film comedian, was born at Atlanta, GA. Bro. Hardy teamed up with Stan Laurel in 1926 to form the comedy team of Laurel and Hardy. Among their most popular films were Soup to Nuts, Babes in Toyland, Swiss Miss and many others. Bro. Hardy died at Hollywood, August 7, 1957. Bro. Hardy was a member of Solomon Lodge 20, Jacksonville, Fla.




In 1801 Bro. John Marshall (1775-1835) was named Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, 1801-1835. He is credited with reshaping the court to become the final authority on questions of constitutionality. He was a member of Richmond Lodge 13, Richmond, VA.

In 1936 Britain's King George V died making the successor to the throne the Prince of Wales who was to become Bro. Edward VIII. Bro. Edward reigned less than a year, abdicating the throne in order to marry American Mrs. Wallis Warfield Simpson. He then became the Duke of Windsor. He was Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England at the time of his succession to the throne.

In 2001, Bro. Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, former astronaut and one of the first three men to walk on the moon, turned 71 years of age. In 1969 he co-piloted the landing on the moon the Apollo 11 lunar module , the mission which took the first men to the moon.., The photograph of Aldrin on the Moon has become the classic image of man's conquest of space. He was born in Montclair, NJ January 20, 1930, and initiated in Montclair Lodge 144, New Jersey. Bro. Aldrin is currently a member of Newark Lodge, No. 7, F&AM in Montclair, NJ.




In 1875 was born at LaGrange, KY David Wark Griffith, pioneer producer-director in the American motion-picture industry. Bro. Griffith is best remembered for his films, "Birth of a Nation" (19215) and "Intolerance" (1916). He was a member of St. Cecile Lodge 568, New York City. . He died at Hollywood, CA July 23, 1948.

In 1890 the 13th Chief Justice of the United States was born at Louisa, KY. Bro. Frederick M Vinson served in the US House of Representatives, was appointed Director of War Mobilization during World War II, and became Secretary of the Treasury under Bro. Harry S Truman. He was nominated by Bro. Truman to succeed Harlan F. Stone as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Bro. Vincent died at Washington, DC, September 8, 1953.


In 1737 was born Bro. John Hancock, American merchant and patriot , who became President of the Continental Congress and whose signature appeared first, and in ever pronounced characters, at the foot of the Declaration of that George can read it without his spectacles." He was made a Mason in Massachusetts Lodge 277, Quebec, Canada, in 1762, and on October 14, the same year, affiliated with St. Andrew's Lodge at Boston, MA. He died there in 1793.

In 18498, Bro. James W,. Marshal, a New Jersey mechanic and employee of John Sutter, accidentally discovered gold while building a sawmill near Caloma, CA., on the south fork of the American River. Efforts to keep the discovery secret failed, and the gold rush of 1849 was soon off and running.

In 1915, Bro. Potter Stewart was born at Jackson, MI. Bro. Stewart was nominated as Associate Justice of the US supreme Court by President Dwight Eisenhower January 17, 1959. He took the oath of office on May 15 of that year. Bro. Stewart retired in July, 1981 and died December 17, 1985, at Putney, VT, five days after suffering a stroke. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

In 1932 New York Governor and Bro. Franklin D. Roosevelt announced his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination - which he went on to win and re-win for an unprecedented four terms. The Mason who became the nation's 32nd President was initiated on October 11, passed on November 14, and raised on November 28, 1911, in Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City. He was elected honorary member of Stansburg Lodge No. 24 at Washington, DC. He was present when his three sons were raised: Elliot on February 17, 1933; James and Franklin d., Jr. in November, 1935, all of them in Architect Lodge No. 519, New York City. Bro. Roosevelt was also a Scottish Rite Mason.

In 1973, Bro. Lyndon B. Johnson 36th US President who served from 1963-1969, died in San Antonio, T X. . In 1965: Bro. Johnson, as US President, outlined the goals of his "Great Society" in his State of the Union Address. Like Bro. Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, and Bro. harry Truman's Fair Deal, before it, Bro. Johnson designed his "Great Society" to help the politically and economically impoverished. It was founded on the premise that poverty and racial strife beleaguer the whole nation. "The Great Society," he said, "rests on abundance of liberty for all. It demands an end to poverty and racial injustice - to which we are totally committed." He asked for federal support for urban renewal, health care, education and the basic needs of the poor. Bro. Johnson was initiated October 30, 1937 in Johnson City Lodge 5761, Johnson City, TX. He did not go on beyond the degree of Entered Apprentice.


In 1917, born in Hamden, CT. was Ermes Borgnino, better known as Ernest Borgnine. Bro. Borgnine was best known for his tough guy roles, but won his Oscar for playing the shy butcher in "Marty" in 1955. He also became well known for his role in television's and film's "McHale's Navy." He is a member of Abington Lodge No. 48, Abington, VA.

In 1943, Bro. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, US President, and Bro. Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister, held a press conference at the conclusion of the Casablanca Conference. "Peace can come to the world,": announced Bro. Roosevelt, "only by the elimination of German and Japanese war power. That means the unconditional surrender of Germany, Italy and Japan. " And so Allied policy went until the end of the war.


In 1759 born at Ayshire Scotland was the beloved Scottish poet Bro. Robert Burns ("Oh wad some power the giftie gie us, To see oursels as others see us."). Bro. Burns died at the early age of 37. Through his poetry Bro. Burns lives on as the national poet of Scotland and as one of the foremost poets of the world Bro. Burns was an enthusiastic Mason from the day of his initiation into St. David's Lodge No. 174 at Tarbolton, on July 4, 1781. He subsequently joined a number of other Lodges including Canongate-Killwinning No. 2 at Edinburgh where he was made poet laureate of the Lodge in 1787. His poems include some which are specifically Masonic, while the words of Auld Lang Syne have become an essential part of New Year celebrations across the world. Bro. Burns died at the early age of 37 at Dumfries, Scotland, July 21, 1796.


In 1880 the Mason who was to become US General and Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific during World War II, was born in Little Rock, AR. Bro. Douglas MacArthur served as commander of the Rainbow division's 84th Infantry Brigade i World war I, leading it in the St. Mihiel, Meuse -Argonne and Sedan offensives. Remembered for his "I shall return" prediction when forced out of the Philippines by the Japanese during World war II,. a promise he fulfilled. Relieved from Far Eastern command by President and Bro. Harry S Truman on April 11, 1951, during the Korean war. . Bro. MacArthur died at Washington, DC, April 5, 1964.


In 1756, Bro. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, one of the world's greatest music makers, was born at Salzburg , Austria. Born into a gifted musical family, Bro. Mozart began performing at age 3, and composing at age 5. Some of the best known of his more than 600 known woks include the operas "the Marriage of Figaro," "Don Giovanni," "Cosi fan tutti," and the "Magic Flute," with is Freemasonry allusions, his unfinished "Requiem Mass," his C major symphony known as the "Jupiter," and many of his quartets and piano concertos. He was initiated in 1784 in Lodge Zur Wohltatigkeit, in Vienna. He died at Vienna December 5, 1791. Bro. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Born at Salzburg, Austria.

In 1850 was born - Samuel Gompers (1850-1924) founder and first president of the American Federation of Labor. He was a member of Dawson Lodge No. 16, Washington, D.C. and remained the organization's president until his death in San Antonio, TX, December 13, 1924. During his term in office he gained workers higher wages, shorter hours, and more privileges and headed the battle against the Knights of Labor.;




In 1843, Bro. William McKinley, who was to become the 25th President of the US, was born at Niles, OH. He died in office at Buffalo, NY on September 14, 1901 . He died as a result of a gunshot wound from an anarchist assassin on September 6 while he was attending the Pan-American Exposition. Bro. McKinley was initiated in Hiram Lodge No. 21 at Winchester, VA, on May 1, passed on may 2, raised on May 5, 1865. He was affiliated with Canton Lodge No. 60 at Canton, OH. He was a member of Mark and Royal Arch, and was a Knight Templar.


In 1833, President and Bro. Andrew Jackson became the first U.S. president to become the target of an assassination attempt. The would-be assassin, Richard Lawrence, pulled a gun, which misfired, after which Bro. Jackson struck him with his cane. Lawrence then pulled a second gun, which also misfired.

In 1882, Bro. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the Mason who was to become America's 32nd President, was born at Hyde Park, NY. The only President to serve more than two terms, he was elected four times. Bro. Roosevelt supported the Allies in World War II before the US entered the struggle by supplying them with war materials through the lend lease Act. He became deeply involved in broad decision-making after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941. He died in office a few months into his fourth term at Warm Springs, GA, April 12, 1945. Bro. Roosevelt was initiated on October 11, passed on November 14, and raised on November 28, 1911 in Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City. He was elected an honorary member of Stansburg Lodge No. 24, at Washington, DC. , and was present when his three sons were raised: Elliot on February 17, 1933; James and Franklin D., Jr. on November, 1935, all of them in Architect lodge 519, New York City. He was also a member of the Scottish Rite.


In 1940, among the most important pieces of New Deal social legislation was the Social Security Act, signed into law by President and Bro. F.;D. Roosevelt on August 14, 1935. It included a number of provisions for general welfare, and created a social insurance system to provide a continuing income to retired workers aged 65 or older. Following the enormous task of registering employers and employees, on January 1, 1937, workers began acquiring credits towards their retirement benefits. Payment of monthly Social Security benefits began in 1940, when check number 00-000-001, in the amount of $22.54 was issued on January 31 to 65-year-old Ida May Fuller, of Ludlow, Vermont. She had worked for three years under the Social Security program before retiring in 1939 from her job as legal secretary. She lived to be 100 years old, collecting a total of $22,888.92 in Social Security benefits. Now a firmly established institution, the Social Security system pays benefits not only to aged retired workers, but also to their aged spouses or widows, children under age 18, and surviving aged parents. This was one of the major promises offered by Bro. Roosevelt in his rn for the US Presidency while America was in the depths of the Great Depression. It was but one of Bro. Roosevelt's many demonstrations of the Masonic Way in action.

On his day every ear Austrial begins the celebration of Mozartwoche (Bro. Mozart week). Austria celebrates Salzburg's native son, the classical composer Bro.Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who was born January 27, 1756. Salzburg celebrates the week around his birthday with a festival of operas and recitals, drawing distinguished musicians and ensembles from around the world. for good cause. Bro. Mozart died in Vienna, Austria at age 35. The Austrian's musical genius shines through all of his works, and his Masonic enthusiasm is reflected in a number of compositions - most dramatically in "The Magic Flute" which was first performed shortly before his death in 1791, For years he had lived off the charity of his Masonic Brethren but was penniless at his death and had to be buried in a pauper's grave. Bro. Mozart was initiated in 1784 in Lodge Zur Wohltatigkeit, in Vienna.

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