The Masonic Trowel

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Some dates associated with Freemasonry / Philosophy / Religion / Fife / Scotland / England  / Ireland / USA / France / Germany / ...

c    means approximately

?    means maybe

Corrections are invited and welcomed.



Date Event Date Person
c2000 Migration of Patriarchs from Ur of the Chaldeans i Abraham lived
i Egyptian Captivity i  
c1280 Exodus i Moses lived
c1000 Rig Veda (VSL of the Hindus) i  
i   c996 Solomon born
c966 Construction of First Jerusalem Temple by Solomon i  
i   c639 Josiah becomes King of Judah
c622 First Jerusalem Temple repaired c622 Hilkiah discovers Book of the Law
c600 Upanishads i  
597 Babylonian Captivity - First deportations i  
586 Destruction of First Jerusalem Temple by Nebuchadnezzar i  
i   c570 Pythagoras born
i   c563 Siddartha Gautama born
562 Babylonian Captivity - Last deportations i  
538 Decree of Cyrus i  
520 Construction of Second Jerusalem Temple by Zerubbabel i  
515 Dedication of Second Temple i  
i   490 Zeno born
i   469 Socrates born
i   445 Nehemiah arrives in Jerusalem
i Torah - Pentateuch compiled (VSL of the Jews) 428 Ezra arrives in Jerusalem
i   427 Plato born
i   384 Aristotle born
i   356 Alexander the Great born
i   c300 Euclid born
c285 Septuagint translated i  
55 First Roman invasion of Britain - Julius Caesar i  
20 Construction of Third Jerusalem Temple by Herod the Great i  
i   c4 John the Baptist born
i   i Jesus born
CE   CE  
i   c6 John the Evangelist born
i   31 Jesus executed
43 Second Roman invasion of Britain - Claudius i  
60 Iceni Revolt i  
80 Destruction of Third Jerusalem Temple by Romans i  
2ndC   2ndC  
121 Hadrian's Wall i  
139 Antonine Wall i  
3rdC   3rdC  
c250 Scots settle Dalriada - Argyll i  
4thC   4thC  
325 Council of Nicaea i  
c367 Invasion of Roman Britain by Picts & Scots i  
c390 Invasion of Britain by Angles, Saxons & Jutes i  
i   397 Ninian founds Whithorn - Galloway
5thC   5thC  
405 Vulgate Bible (VSL of the Roman Catholics) i  
430 Roman control of England Ends i  
6thC   6thC  
i   563 Columba founds Iona - Argyll
i   570 Mohamed born
7thC   7thC  
622 Hegira i  
c650 Koran - Suras Collected (VSL of Islam) i  
i   662 Ali assassinated
664 Synod of Whitby i  
i   681 Husain killed
685 Dunnichen i  
c691 Construction of Dome of the Rock (Omar's Mosque) i  
8thC   8thC  
732 Battle of Poitiers (Tours) i  
793 First Viking landing in Britain i  
9thC   9thC  
i   849 Kenneth McAlpine becomes King of Scots & Picts
10thC   10thC  
i   900 Constantine II becomes King of Pictland - Alba
11thC   11thC  
1016 Carham 1016 Malcom II unites Scotland
i   1058 Malcom III founds Canmore dynasty
1066 Norman conquest of England i  
i   1068 Margaret Atheling given refuge in Fife
1072 Benedictine Priory Church established in Dunfermline i  
i   1076 Peter the Hermit preaches Crusade
1095 1st Crusade i  
1099 Jerusalem falls to Crusaders i  
12thC   12thC  
1118 Foundation of Knights Templar i  
1128 Council of Troyes 1128 Bernard of Clairvaux authors Templar Rule
c1136 Start of Gothic Architectural Period - Basilique St. Denis i  
i   1146 Bernard of Clairvaux preaches Crusade
1147 2nd Crusade i  
1150 Krac de Chevalier constructed i  
i Dunfermline Priory Church raised to Abbey status i  
1160 St. Andrew's Cathedral founded i  
i   1170 Domenic Guzman born
1187 Hattin 1187 Saladin reconquers Jerusalem for Islam
1189 3rd Crusade i  
i   1192 Saladin allows pilgrim access to Holy Sepulchre
i Inchcolm Abbey founded - Fife i  
13thC   13thC  
1202 4th Crusade i  
1208 Albigensian Crusade i  
1215 Magna Carta i  
1244 Jerusalem retaken for Islam i  
i   c1270 William Wallace born
i   1274 Robert Bruce born
1291 Acre falls i  
1297 Stirling Bridge i  
14thC   14thC  
1307 Templars arrested in France - Friday 13th October i  
1312 Templar Order dissolved  i  
1314 Bannockburn 1314 Jacques de Molay burnt at stake
i Larmenius Charter ( ? ) i  
1320 Declaration of Arbroath i  
1337 Start of Hundred Year War i  
1381 English Peasants' Revolt under Watt the Tyler i  
1384 Wycliffe Bible i  
c1390 Regius Poem i  
15thC   15thC  
1412 St. Andrews University founded - Fife i  
c1425 Cooke Ms. i  
1446 Rosslyn Chapel i  
1453 End of Hundred Year War i  
1468 Dunfermline Grammar (High) School founded - Fife i  
i End of Lordship of the Isles i  
    1469 Guru Nanak born
1475 Edinburgh Masons & Wrights Seal of Cause i  
16thC   16thC  
1517 Martin Luther's Ninety Five Theses published - Wittenberg i  
c1525 Tyndale's Bible (New Testament) published - Cologne i  
1538 John Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion published - Strasbourg i  
1540 Society of Jesus founded by Ignatius of Loyola i  
i   1546 George Wishart burnt at stake - St Andrews
i   i Cardinal Beaton assassinated - St Andrews
    i John Knox captured and sent to Galleys - St Andrews
1557 Scottish Reformation - First Covenant - Lords of Congregation i  
i   1559 John Knox returns to Scotland
1560 The Confession of Faith Professed and Believed by the Protestants  i  
  within the Realm of Scotland - ratifed by Parliament i  
1587 Edinburgh University founded i  
1592 First post Scottish Reformation Church constructed - Burntisland i  
1598 First Schaw Statutes i  
i Oldest Lodge Minute - Aitchison's Haven i  
1599 The Lodge of Edinburgh's earliest minute i  
i Second Schaw Statutes i  
17thC   17thC  
i   1600 Giordano Bruno burnt at stake
1601 First Sinclair Charter 1601 James VI initiated ( ? )
i General Assembly agrees on object of new Bible - Burntisland i  
1603 England - Scotland Union of Crowns i  
1604 Guru Granth Sahib compiled (VSL of the Sikhs) i  
i   1608 John Dee dies
1611 James VI - Bible (VSL of Scottish Presbyterians) i  
1614 1st Rosicrucian Manifesto - Fama Fraternitas i  
1615 2nd Rosicrucian Manifesto - Confessio Fraternitas i  
1616 3rd Rosicrucian Manifesto - Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosencreuz 1616 Galileo accused of heresy and recants
1618 Start of Thirty Year War i  
1628 Second Sinclair Charter i  
i   1637 Dr. Robert Fludd dies
1638 Muses Threnody (concerning Perth) published in Edinburgh i  
i Scottish National Covenant i  
1639 Start of British Civil Wars i  
i   1641 Sir Robert Moray initiated
1645 "Invisible College" founded i  
1646 Westminster Confession of Faith 1646 Elias Ashmole initiated
1648 End of Thirty Year War i  
1649 British Republican Commonwealth i  
1653 End of British Civil Wars i  
i British Protectorate    
1660 Restoration of British Monarchy i  
1661 Episcopy re-imposed in Scotland i  
1662 Royal Society of London for the  1662 Sir Robert Moray becomes first President of Royal Society
  Improvement of Natural Knowledge - chartered i  
1670 Mark Book of Lodge of Aberdeen i  
1677 Lodge Canongate Kilwinning founded - Edinburgh i  
1687 Newton's Principia Mathematica published (Laws of Motion & Gravity) i  
1688 British Revolution i  
i Lodge Canongate and Leith / Leith and Canongate founded i  
i Jacobite Lodge La Bonne Foi founded - St Germain-en-Laye (?) i  
1689 1st Jacobite Rebellion 1689 Viscount Graham of Claverhouse killed
1690 Presbyterian Kirk governance restored in Scotland i  
1696 Edinburgh Register House Ms. i  
18thC   18thC  
c1700 Chetwood Crawley Ms. i  
1701 English Act of Settlement i  
i   1703 Newton elected President of Royal Society
1704 Newton's Optiks published (Calculus) i  
1707 England - Scotland Act of Union i  
1709 Lodge of Journeyman Masons founded - Edinburgh i  
1711 Earliest Irish record of Master Mason Degree i  
1715 2nd Jacobite Rebellion i  
i Lodge of Journeyman Masons obtain Decretal Arbitral i  
1717 Grand Lodge of England founded - Moderns i  
1719 3rd Jacobite Rebellion i  
i   1721 Rev. Dr. Jean Theophilus Desaguliers visits Mary's Chapel
i   1723 Rev. Dr. James Anderson's First Book of Constitutions
1725 Grand Lodge of Ireland in existence before i  
1726 Earliest Scottish record of Master Mason Degree - Dumbarton Kilwinning i  
i Jacobite Lodge Saint Thomas founded - Paris i Charles Radclyffe, James Hector MacLean & Dominique O'Heguerty
i Graham Ms. i  
1731 Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania founded 1731 Benjamin Franklin initiated
1732 GLI warrants IC Military Lodge - 1st Foot (Royal Scots) i  
i   1734 Benjamin Franklin becomes GM of Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania
1735 Lodge Glasgow Kilwinning (No.4) chartered i  
1736 Grand Lodge of Scotland founded 1736 William St. Clair of Rosslyn becomes first Grand Master of GLS
i Grand Lodge of France founded i Chevalier Andrew Michael Ramsay's Oration
1738 Papal Bull - In Eminenti Apostolatus Specula i  
1743 First mention of Royal Arch - Stirling ( ? ) 1743 Earl of Kilmarnock recommends first SC Military (travelling) Lodge
i GLS warrants first SC Military Lodge - 55th Foot Col. Lee's Regiment i Baron Karl Gotthelf von Hund receives "Clermont System" degrees ( ? )
1744 Lodge Kilwinning breaks with GLS i  
i Grand Lodge Three Globes (Prussian) founded - Berlin i  
1745 4th Jacobite Rebellion i  
i Provincial Grand Lodge of Fife & Kinross founded i  
1746 Culloden 1746 Earl of Derwentwater (Charles Radclyffe) executed
i   i Earl of Kilmarnock executed
i   c1750 Baron Karl Gotthelf von Hund institutes Rectified Masonry
1751 Papal Bull - Providas i  
i Encyclopaedia First Edition published - Paris i  
i   1752 George Washington initiated - Fredricksburgh (No.4) - Virginia
1753 Oldest Royal Arch minute - Fredricksburg (No.4) - Virginia  i  
1754 Clermont Chapter founded - Paris 1754 Chevalier Bonneville establishes Clermont Chapter in Paris ( ? )
1756 Ancient Grand Lodge of England founded 1756 Dermot's First Book of Constitutions - Aihmon Rezon
i St Andrews Lodge Boston chartered by GLS i Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart born
1758 "Strict Union" between Ancients and GLI i  
i Fredericksburg (No4) Virginia chartered by GLS i  
i Council of Emperors of the East & West founded - Paris i  
i   1762 John Hancock affiliates to St Andrew's Lodge - Boston
1762 Constitutions - Rite of Perfection i  
1764 Rectified Masonry renamed Strict Observance    
1766 Charter of Compact - Royal Arch Grand Chapter of England i  
1768 Grand Lodge of France closed by Louis XV i  
i Encyclopaedia Britannica First Edition published - Edinburgh i  
1769 Premier Grand Lodge proposes Charter of Incorporation i  
i St. Andrews Lodge Boston confers Knight Templar Degree i  
1770 Grand Lodge Grand Land (Prussian) founded - Berlin 1770 John Paul (Jones) initiated
1771 Grand Lodge of France revived as National Grand Lodge i  
i Loge Amis Reunis founded - Paris i  
1773 "Strict Union" between Ancients and GLS i  
i Boston Tea Party 1773 Paul Revere Master of St. Andrew's Lodge leads Boston Tea Party ( ? )
i National Grand Lodge of France becomes Grand Orient i Louis Philippe Joseph Duc d' Orleans installed as Master of Grand Orient
i   1775 Prince Hall initiated into No.441 38th Regiment of Foot IC
1776 American Revolution - Declaration of Independence i  
i Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations published - Edinburgh i  
i Loge Neuf Soeurs founded - Paris i  
i Order of Perfectiblists (Illuminati) founded by Adam Weishaupt i  
i   1777 Adam Weishaupt initiated
i   1778 Voltaire initiated
i   i John Paul (Jones) raids Britain
i   1779 Benjamin Franklin installed as Master of Loge Neuf Soeurs - Paris
i   1780 Johann Von Goethe initiated
i   1781 Robert Burns initiated
1782 Masonic Congress - Wilhelmsbad i  
i   1783 Simon Bolivar born
i   1784 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart initiated
1784 African Lodge No.459 chartered by GLE i Prince Hall installed as first Master of African Lodge No.459
i   1785 Franz Joseph Haydn initiated
1786 Grand Constitutions - Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite 1786 Honre-Gabriel Riquetti Compte de Mirabeau initiated
1788 American Constitution & Bill of Rights i  
1789 French Revolution i  
i Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen i  
1790 Loge Neuf Soeurs becomes Le Societe Nationale de Neuf Soeurs i  
1791 Jacobins close Lodges 1791 Honre-Gabriel Riquetti Compte de Mirabeau dies (poisoned ?)
1791-92 Thomas Paine's The Rights of Man published i  
1793 Terror 1793 Jean Paul Marat assassinated
i   i Louis Philippe (Egalite) Joseph Duc d' Orleans executed
i   1794 Jacques Rene Hebert executed
i   i Georges-Jacques Danton executed
i   i Camille Benoit Desmoulins executed
1794 Thermador Reaction i Maximilien Marie Isadore de Robespierre executed
i   i Louis Antoine Leon de Saint-Juste executed
1795 Grand Orient of France - revived i  
1797 UK Unlawful Oaths Act i  
1798 Grand Orient of France - sanctioned by Paris police 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte initiated ( ? )
i Grand Lodge Royal York of Friendship (Prussian) founded - Berlin i  
1799 UK Unlawful Societies Act 1799 Napoleon ends Directory
i GLS formally prohibits all non Craft Degrees i  
i Lodge Kilwinning charters High Knight Templars of Ireland - Dublin i  
19thC   19thC  
1800 GLS repeats prohibition of all non Craft Degrees i  
1801 Supreme Council AASR founded - Charleston 1801 Sir Walter Scott initiated
1804 Supreme Council - Scottish General Grand Lodge - Paris i  
i   1805 Guiseppe Mazzini born
1806 Lodge Kilwinning reconciles with GLS i  
i The Lodge of Edinburgh & The Associated Lodges secede from GLS i  
i   1807 Guiseppe Garibaldi born
i   i Simon Bolivar initiated
1811 Royal Grand Conclave of Scotland founded (English charter) 1810 Alexander Deuchar appointed first Grand Master
i Grand Lodge of Hamburg (Humanitarian) founded i  
i Grand Lodge of Bayreuth (Humanitarian) founded i  
i Grand Lodge of Dresden (Humanitarian) founded i  
1813 United Grand Lodge of England founded 1813 Duke of Sussex becomes first Grand Master of UGLE
i United Grand Lodge of England acknowledges Royal Arch i  
i The Lodge of Edinburgh & The Associated Lodges reconciled with GLS i  
i Rite of Memphis established i  
i   1814 Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin born
1817 Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Scotland founded i  
i Grand Lodge of Scotland declares against Royal Arch i  
1826 Early Grand Encampment of Scotland founded (Irish charter) i  
1836 Alamo 1836 James Bowie killed
i   i David Crockett killed
i   i William B.Travis killed
i   1842 Prince Pyotr Alekseyevich Kropotkin born
1842 Lodge Hope of Kurrachee chartered by GLS i  
1843 Disruption of Scottish Kirk i  
1848 Communist Manifesto - published c1848 Richard Francis Burton initiated - Lodge Hope of Kurrachee
i February Revolution - Paris i  
i March Revolution - Berlin i  
i   1849 Pierre Joseph Proudhon initiated
1859 Darwin's Origin of Species published - London i  
1861 American Civil War 1861 Samuel Langhorn Clemens (Mark Twain) initiated
1864 James Clerk Maxwell's Electro-Magnetic Field equations - published i  
1867 Karl Marx's Das Kapital published - Hamburgh i  
1871 Paris Commune i  
i Albert Pike's Morals & Dogmas of the AASR of Freemasonry published i  
1872 German Grand Lodge Alliance i  
1877 UGLE withdraws recognition of Grand Orient of France 1877 Cecil J. Rhodes initiated
i   1881 John Philip Sousa initiated
1884 Papal Bull - Humanum Genus i  
i   1885 Rudyard Kipling initiated - Lahore
1890 Papal Bull - Ab Apostolici i  
i   1893 Arthur Conan Doyle initiated
1894 Grand Lodge of France breaks from Supreme Council i  
1895 Propoganda Due founded i  
20thC   20thC  
1900 D. Murray Lyon's History of the Lodge of Edinburgh No.1 published i  
i   1901 Theodore Roosevelt initiated
i   i William McKinley assassinated
i   i Winston S. Churchill initiated
1905 Chapter General (Royal Grand Conclave) becomes Great Priory of Scotland    
1908 Mustapha Kemal initiated into Committee of Union and Progress i  
1909 Young Turks depose Sultan Abdul Hamid i  
i Grand Lodge of Turkey founded 1909 Harry S. Truman initiated
i Early Grand Encampment subsumed into Great Priory of Scotland i  
i   1911 Franklin D. Roosevelt initiated
1913 National Grand Lodge of France founded i  
1914 Start of First World War i  
1917 Bolshevik Revolution i  
1919 End of First World War i  
i Provincial Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Fife & Kinross founded 1919 Earl of Elgin & Kincardine becomes first Grand Superintendent
i Bolsheviks close Russian Lodges i  
1921 Kronstadt 1921 J. Edgar Hoover initiated
1922 Prussian Grand Lodges withdraw from German Grand Lodge Alliance 1922 Johan (Jean) Julius Christian Sibelius initiated
1925 Mussolini outlaws Freemasonry in Italy i  
i Adolph Hitler's Mein Kamf published i  
1935 Nazis close German Lodges 1935 Salvador Allende initiated
1936 Spanish Civil War i  
1939 Start of Second World War i  
i Franco outlaws Freemasonry in  Spain i  
1940 Vichy France outlaws Freemasonry i  
i Nazis / Quisling close Norwegian Lodges i  
1945 VE Day i  
i Hiroshima - Nagasaki i  
i VJ Day i  
1946 Partition of India into India & Pakistan i  
1947 UN votes to partition Palestine i  
1950 Korea i  
1954 Start of Vietnam War i  
1956 Suez i  
1961 Berlin Wall constructed i  
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis i  
1973 Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto closes Pakistani Lodges i  
i Lodge Hope of Kurrachee declared dormant i  
1975 End of Vietnam War i  
1976 Propaganda Due charter withdrawn by Grand Orient of Italy i  
1981 Italy outlaws secret societies i  
1988 David Stevenson's The First Freemasons published - Aberdeen i  
1989 Church of Scotland Panel on Doctrine councils against Freemasonry i  
i Berlin Wall falls i  
1990 Gulf War i  
21stC   21stC  
2003 Iraq War i  
2004 Grand Lodge suicide bombed - Istanbul i

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Last modified: March 22, 2014